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Database of all vitamin D COVID-19 studies


Database of all vitamin D COVID-19 studies. Sufficiency studies analyze outcomes based on vitamin D levels, confounding factors may be significant. Treatment studies directly analyze the effect of vitamin D treatment. vitamind4all.org provides treatment recommendations. Submit updates/corrections.

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Dec 3

Early, Late, PrEP, PEPCovid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)

meta-analysis v113

Vitamin D for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 143 studiesDetails • 85% of 53 vitamin D treatment studies report positive effects. 27 studies show statistically significant improvements in isolation (21 for the most serious outcome). • Random effects meta-analysis with pooled effects using the most ser..

Nov 30

LevelsFatemi et al., Acute and Critical Care, doi:10.4266/acc.2021.00605 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓42.0%, p=0.07

Association of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 severity and mortality in Iranian people: a prospective observational studyDetails Prospective study of 248 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Iran with vitamin D levels measured in the previous year and again at admission, showing vitamin D status associated with severity and mortality.

Nov 30

LevelsKaur et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Practice, 32:6 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓89.8%, p<0.0001

Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with COVID-19 Severity and OutcomeDetails Prospective study of 81 hospitalized COVID+ patients in India, showing low vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.

Nov 24

LevelsJenei et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.11.025 (Peer Reviewed)COVID-19 mortality is associated with low Vitamin D levels in patients with risk factors and/or advanced ageDetails Retrospective 257 hospitalized patients in Hungary, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels for all patients, for patients >60, and for age-matched patients with risk factors or age >60. The non-age-matched analyses are c..

Nov 12

LevelsSacristán et al., Transplantation Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.08.060 (Peer Reviewed)Risk of severe COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipientsDetails Retrospective 63 COVID+ kidney transplant recipients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels before infection in patients requiring ICU admission.

Nov 12

LevelsGönen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓65.8%, p=0.62

Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1Details Retrospective 867 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing worse outcomes with vitamin D deficiency (without statistical significance); followed by a prospective study of 210 patients with vitamin D supplementation for those that..

Nov 10

LevelsAsghar et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., doi:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0577 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓53.1%, p=0.05

Evaluation of Vitamin-D Status and Its Association with Clinical Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients in PakistanDetails Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with mortality in multivariate Cox regression.

Nov 3

LevelsGallelli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113932 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D Serum Levels in Subjects Tested for SARS-CoV-2: What Are the Differences among Acute, Healed, and Negative COVID-19 Patients? A Multicenter Real-Practice StudyDetails Analysis of 117 patients in Italy, showing COVID-19 patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels than control patients.

Nov 2

LevelsAtanasovska et al., Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓40.7%, p=0.68

Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19Details Retrospective 33 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in North Macedonia, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for severe vs. moderate cases. Oxidative stress was also higher for vitamin D insufficient patients.

Oct 25

LateLeal et al., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3949424 (Preprint)

death, ↓85.7%, p=0.03

Effect of a Nutritional Support System to Increase Survival and Reduce Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Stage III and Comorbidities: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical TrialDetails 80 patient RCT with 40 patients treated with a comprehensive regimen of nutritional support, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. Treatment contained cholecalciferol, vitamin C, zinc, spirulina maxima, folic acid, glutam..

Oct 22

LevelsHurst et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055435 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓68.4%, p=0.005

Vitamin D insufficiency in COVID-19 and influenza A, and critical illness survivors: a cross-sectional studyDetails Analysis of 259 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the UK, showing a majority of patients had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, which was associated with poor outcomes. Both free and total 25(OH)D were analyzed with consistent results. I..

Oct 20

LevelsAl-Anouti et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113680 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓68.1%, p=0.0007

Associations between Genetic Variants in the Vitamin D Metabolism Pathway and Severity of COVID-19 among UAE ResidentsDetails Retrospective 646 COVID-19 patients in the UAE, showing significant associations between genetic determinants of vitamin D metabolism and COVID-19 severity, and an association with vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity. Patients in t..

Oct 15

LevelsRamirez-Sandoval et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.09.006 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓31.5%, p<0.0001

Very Low Vitamin D Levels are a Strong Independent Predictor of Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Severe COVID-19Details Retrospective 2,908 hospitalized patients in Mexico with vitamin D levels measured on admission, showing significantly lower mortality for patients without vitamin D deficiency.

Oct 13

LateMaghbooli et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.09.016 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓40.0%, p=0.72

Treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcifediol) is associated with a reduction in the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized with COVID-19: a pilot, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled double blind clinical trialDetails RCT 106 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml in Iran, 53 treated with calcifediol, showing that treatment was able to correct vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, resulting in improved immune system function. Hospitalizatio..

Oct 12

LevelsAfaghi et al., The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, doi:10.1620/tjem.255.127 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓55.0%, p=0.002

Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Vitamin D Deficiency in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center AnalysisDetails Retrospective 646 COVID-19+ hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.

Oct 12

PrEP, EarlyWorcel et al., Annals of Palliative Medicine, doi:10.21037/apm-21-1707 (Peer Reviewed)Low mortality from COVID-19 at a nursing facility in France following a combined preventive and active treatment protocolDetails Report on the relatively low mortality and relatively mild COVID-19 symptoms at a French nursing facility that has adopted several treatments including vitamin D, zinc, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, and a multivitamin.

Oct 9

LateCaballero-García et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina57101079 (Peer Reviewed)Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Muscle Status in Old Patients Recovering from COVID-19 InfectionDetails Small RCT with 30 patients examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle status in elderly recovering COVID-19 patients, showing serum creatine kinase levels returned to optimal values, however there was no significant diffe..

Oct 5

LevelsMukherjee et al., FEBS Open Bio, doi:10.1002/2211-5463.13309 (Peer Reviewed)Seasonal UV exposure and vitamin D: Association with the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in EuropeDetails Analysis of UV and temperature levels in 26 European countries, showing that low temperature, UV index, and cloud-free vitamin D UV dose levels are negatively correlated with COVID-19 prevalence. Authors suggest that low UV exposure can a..

Oct 2

LevelsAbdollahzadeh et al., Infection, Genetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105098 (Peer Reviewed)Association of Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and clinical/severe outcomes of COVID-19 patientsDetails Analysis of 500 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing associations between specific vitamin D receceptor gene polymorphisms and COVID-19 outcomes.

Sep 27

LateYildiz et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/BLL_2021_119 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓80.9%, p=0.04

The prognostic significance of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 pneumoniaDetails Retrospective 207 hospitalized patients in Turkey, 37 with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml treated with a 300,000IU vitamin D, showing lower mortality with treatment.

Sep 25

MetaBorsche et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103596 (preprint 9/25/2021) (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)

meta-analysis

COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisDetails Meta analysis of 8 studies with vitamin D levels measured pre-infection or on the day of hospital admission, showing a correlation between the levels and mortality. Authors recommend combining vaccination with vitamin D supplementation to..

Sep 24

PrEPPEPArroyo-Díaz et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.758347 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↑12.4%, p=0.59

Previous Vitamin D Supplementation and Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes in People Hospitalised for COVID19: A Cross-Sectional StudyDetails Retrospective 1,267 hospitalized patients in Spain, 189 on vitamin D supplementation before admission, showing lower ICU admission with supplementation, and no statistically significant difference for mortality or ventilation.

Sep 22

ReviewCastle et al., Journal of Inflammation Research, doi:10.2147/JIR.S323356 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)

review

Implications for Systemic Approaches to COVID-19: Effect Sizes of Remdesivir, Tocilizumab, Melatonin, Vitamin D3, and MeditationDetails Review of the effects of COVID-19 on inflammatory markers, and the effects on those markers of standard treatments vs. vitamin D, melatonin, and meditation, showing comparable or superior effects with the non-standard treatments. The stan..

Sep 22

LevelsMarino-Ramirez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.20.21263865 (Preprint)Vitamin D and socioeconomic deprivation mediate COVID-19 ethnic health disparitiesDetails UK Biobank retrospective showing that vitamin supplements, including vitamin D, mediate the Asian disparity in COVID-19 susceptibility, and vitamin D levels mediate Asian and Black COVID-19 severity disparities. Authors conclude that the ..

Sep 19

LevelsDerakhshanian et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2591 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓44.8%, p=0.05

The predictive power of serum vitamin D for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patientsDetails Retrospective 290 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.

Sep 14

LevelsPadhi et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107001 (Peer Reviewed)Lower levels of vitamin D are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in the Indian population: An observational studyDetails Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in Indian states and union territories, showing an inverse correlation of vitamin D levels with SARS-CoV-2 cases and mortality.

Sep 9

In VitroPickard et al., PLOS Pathogens, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1009840 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)

in vitro

Discovery of re-purposed drugs that slow SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cellsDetailsIn Vitro studying identifying 35 compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells and hepatocytes when treated prior to infection, and several compounds that slow replication when treated after infection: vitamin D, amodiaquine, atovaquone..

Sep 8

LateElamir et al., Bone, doi:10.1016/j.bone.2021.116175 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓85.7%, p=0.23

A Randomized Pilot Study Using Calcitriol in Hospitalized PatientsDetails RCT 50 hospitalized patients in the USA, 25 treated with calcitriol, showing significantly improved oxygenation with treatment. Mortality, intubation, ICU admission, and hospitalization time also favored treatment, while not reaching stat..

Sep 5

PrEPPEPLázaro et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.70.EP552 (Preprint)

cases, ↓26.8%, p=1.00

Vitamin D deficit in type 2 diabetes patients during COVID-19 lockdown with and without supplementationDetails Analysis of 239 consecutive diabetic patients, 97 taking vitamin D supplements, showing significantly higher vitamin D levels in supplemented patients. There was no statistically significant difference in cases based on supplementation, w..

Sep 1

PrEPPEPBagheri et al., Journal of Family & Reproductive Health, doi:10.18502/jfrh.v14i3.4668 (Peer Reviewed)

progression, ↓70.9%, p=0.02

Supplement Usage Pattern in a Group of COVID- 19 Patients in TehranDetails Retrospective 510 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severity with vitamin D (statistically significant) and zinc (not statistically significant) supplementation. IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1398.1063.

Sep 1

LateSoliman et al., Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, doi:10.1177/20101058211041405 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓63.4%, p=0.21

Impact of Vitamin D Therapy on the Progress COVID-19: Six Weeks Follow-Up Study of Vitamin D Deficient Elderly Diabetes PatientsDetails Small RCT with 56 eldery diabetes patients hospitalized in Egypt, 40 treated with cholecalciferol, not showing significant differences.

Aug 31

MetaBen-Eltriki et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)

meta-analysis

Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational StudiesDetails Meta analysis of 24 observational studies with 3,637 participants, showing low vitamin D status associated with a higher risk of death and a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Aug 29

LevelsKaronova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓77.8%, p=0.006

Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19Details Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing COVID-19 severity and mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency. Patients in this study may overlap with those in an earlier smaller study from some of the same authors.

Aug 28

LateAssiri et al., Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.030 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↑66.5%, p=0.60

COVID-19 related treatment and outcomes among COVID-19 ICU patients: A retrospective cohort studyDetails Retrospective 118 ICU patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant differences in unadjusted results with zinc, vitamin D, and favipiravir treatment.

Aug 27

LevelsPecina et al., Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, doi:10.1177/21501327211041206 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓35.9%, p=0.74

Vitamin D Status and Severe COVID-19 Disease Outcomes in Hospitalized PatientsDetails Retrospective 92 hospitalized patients not showing significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D status or supplementation.

Aug 26

PrEPPEPGolabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (preprint 8/26/2021) (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↑25.4%, p=0.56

The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional StudyDetails Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..

Aug 26

LevelsGolabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (preprint 8/26/2021) (Peer Reviewed)

symp., ↓90.0%, p<0.0001

The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional StudyDetails Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..

Aug 25

MetaVarikasuvu (Preprint) (meta analysis)

meta-analysis

COVID-19 and Vitamin D (Co-VIVID Study): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsDetails Meta analysis of 6 vitamin D treatment RCTs, showing statistically significant improvements for pooled outcomes and PCR positivity, and positive but not statistically significant improvements for mortality, mechanical ventilation, ICU adm..

Aug 20

In SilicoSong et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1964601 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D3 and its hydroxyderivatives as promising drugs against COVID-19: a computational studyDetailsIn Silico study suggesting that vitamin D3 and its biologically active hydroxyderivatives can serve as an TMPRSS2 inhibitor, and inhibit ACE2 binding with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD.

Aug 18

LevelsShakeri et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27277 (Peer Reviewed)Evaluation of the relationship between serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19Details Retrospective 293 hospitalized patients in Iran showing lower levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D in patients that died, with statistical significance reached only for zinc.

Aug 12

Levelsdi Filippo et al, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab599 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓10.7%, p=1.00

Vitamin D levels associate with blood glucose and BMI in COVID-19 patients predicting disease severityDetails Retrospective 88 patients in Italy, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with severe cases, blood glucose, and BMI.

Aug 11

LevelsSinaci et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105964 (Peer Reviewed)

m/s case, ↓79.5%, p<0.0001

Impact of vitamin D on the course of COVID-19 during pregnancy: A case control studyDetails Retrospective 159 COVID-19+ pregnant women in Turkey and 332 healthy pregnant controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19+ patients. 23% of COVID-19 patients where on vitamin D supplementation, while none of the 7 s..

Aug 10

LevelsAlpcan et al., Epidemiology & Infection, doi:10.1017/S0950268821001825 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓73.0%, p=0.0005

Vitamin D levels in children with COVID-19: a report from TurkeyDetails Retrospective 75 COVID-19 hospitalized pediatric patients in Turkey and 80 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.

Aug 5

LevelsEden et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓63.9%, p=0.10

Nutritional parameters and outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19: a retrospective single-centre service evaluationDetails Retrospective 72 ICU patients in the UK, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, not reaching statistical significance.

Aug 5

LevelsRibeiro et al., Clinica Chimica Acta, doi:10.1016/j.cca.2021.08.003 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓50.5%, p=0.01

Previous vitamin D status and total cholesterol are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infectionDetails Retrospective 1,634 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil, showing vitamin D levels <30ng/mL associated with greater odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test in patients older than 49 years.

Aug 5

LevelsNimavat et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102661 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓50.4%, p=0.17

Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19: A case-control study at a tertiary care hospital in IndiaDetails Case control study with 156 PCR+ cases in India and 204 controls, showing more frequent vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients, and an association between lower vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity.

Aug 4

PrEPPEPMohseni et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-11-2020-0421 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓12.4%, p=0.09

Do body mass index (BMI) and history of nutritional supplementation play a role in the severity of COVID-19? A retrospective studyDetails Retrospective 603 patients in Iran, 192 taking vitamin D supplements, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases in unadjusted results. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.015.

Jul 30

LevelsMatin et al., Archives of Microbiology, doi:10.1007/s00203-021-02482-5 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓66.1%, p<0.0001

The sufficient vitamin D and albumin level have a protective effect on COVID-19 infectionDetails Case control study with 191 COVID-19 patients and 203 healthy controls in Iran, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 infection and severity. 84.4% of COVID-19 patients had vitamin D deficiency.

Jul 29

LevelsAl-Salman et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-05-2021-0143 (Peer Reviewed)

ICU, ↓44.4%, p=0.03

In COVID-19 patients, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in serum is associated with longer viral clearance time and higher risk of intensive care unit admissionDetails Retrospective 450 hospitalized patients in Bahrain, showing increased risk of ICU admission and slower viral clearance with vitamin D deficiency.

Jul 29

MetaGhasemian et al., The International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14675 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)

meta-analysis

The Role of Vitamin D in the Age of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisDetails Systematic review and meta analysis of 23 studies, finding significantly higher risk of COVID-19 cases and severity with vitamin D deficiency. Mortality risk was higher with deficiency, but not reaching statistical significance, OR 1.6 [0..

Jul 29

Early, PrEPAnnweiler et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:0.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105958 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓64.2%, p=0.002

Vitamin D supplementation prior to or during COVID-19 associated with better 3-month survival in geriatric patients: Extension phase of the GERIA-COVID studyDetails Report on extended results from the GERIA-COVID study, showing significantly lower mortality at 3 months with vitamin D treatment. Results combine prophylaxis and early treatment.

Jul 27

In SilicoQayyum et al., Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00174.2021 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D and lumisterol novel metabolites can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery enzymesDetailsIn Silico analysis showing that vitamin D and lumisterol metabolites may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and RdRP.

Jul 27

LevelsCozier et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0255132 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓38.6%, p=0.04

Lower serum 25(OH)D levels associated with higher risk of COVID-19 infection in U.S. Black womenDetails Prospective study of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 infection in the Black Women's Health Study, showing higher risk of infection for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels were from 3-7 years before infection. Levels at the time of infe..

Jul 27

PrEPPEPIsrael et al., Epidemiology and Global Health Microbiology and Infectious Disease, doi:10.7554/eLife.68165 (Peer Reviewed)

hosp., ↓9.1%, p=0.003

Identification of drugs associated with reduced severity of COVID-19: A case-control study in a large populationDetails Case control study examining medication usage with a healthcare database in Israel, showing lower risk of hospitalization with vitamin D (defined as being picked up within 35 days prior to PCR+). Other patients may have acquired vitamin D..

Jul 26

PrEPPEPJimenez et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13082559 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓50.1%, p=0.02

Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients with COVID-19, the Effect of Paricalcitol or CalcimimeticsDetails Retrospective 288 hemodialysis patients in Spain, 137 with existing vitamin D treatments (94 with paricalcitol), showing lower mortality with treatment. There was no significant difference in outcomes based on serum levels, however author..

Jul 23

LateGüven et al, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-021-00984-5 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓24.8%, p=0.32

The effect of high-dose parenteral vitamin D3 on COVID-19-related inhospital mortality in critical COVID-19 patients during intensive care unit admission: an observational cohort studyDetails Retrospective 175 ICU patients, 113 treated with a single dose of 300,000IU intramuscular cholecalciferol, showing lower mortality with treatment, but not reaching statistical significance. Calcifediol or calcitriol, which avoids several ..

Jul 17

PrEPPEPOristrell et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01639-9 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↑1.0%, p=0.91

Vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 risk: a population-based, cohort studyDetails Retrospective study of cholecalciferol and calcitriol supplementation in Catalonia showing a small but significant lower risk of cases with cholecalciferol, but no significant difference for mortality, or for calcitriol supplementation. S..

Jul 9

EarlyRabail et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2458 (Peer Reviewed)Nutritional and lifestyle changes required for minimizing the recovery period in home quarantined COVID-19 patients of Punjab, PakistanDetails Survey of 80 recovered COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing faster recovery with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation.

Jul 6

PrEPPEPMargolin et al., Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1177/2515690X211026193 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓94.4%, p=0.003

20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and TreatmentDetails Retrospective 113 outpatients, 53 (patient choice) treated with zinc, quercetin, vitamin C/D/E, l-lysine, and Quina, showing lower cases with treatment. Results are subject to selection bias and limited information on the groups is provid..

Jul 1

LevelsBianconi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111408 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓17.5%, p=0.58

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its prognostic impact on patients hospitalized with COVID-19Details Prospective study of 200 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing 80% of patients had vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D levels. There was also no significant difference in vitamin D l..

Jun 24

LateSabico et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072170 (Peer Reviewed)Effects of a 2-Week 5000 IU versus 1000 IU Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Recovery of Symptoms in Patients with Mild to Moderate Covid-19: A Randomized Clinical TrialDetails Small RCT of 69 hospitalized patients comparing 1000IU and 5000IU daily cholecalciferol, showing faster recovery with the higher dose.

Jun 24

MetaPal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01614-4 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)

meta-analysis

Vitamin D supplementation and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysisDetails Meta analysis of 13 vitamin D treatment studies, showing significantly lower ICU admission/mortality with treatment.

Jun 24

LevelsBeigmohammadi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111400 (Peer Reviewed)The association between serum levels of micronutrients and the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19Details Retrospective 60 ICU patients in Iran, showing that lower levels of vitamin D, magnesium, and zinc were significantly associated with higher APACHE scores (P = 0.001, 0.028, and <0.001, respectively) and higher lung involvement (P = 0.002..

Jun 22

LevelsZelzer et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072129 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓46.4%, p=0.08

Vitamin D Metabolites and Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 PatientsDetails Retrospective 148 patients in Austria, showing no statistically significant differences in vitamin D levels and metabolites for mortality or respiratory support.

Jun 17

LevelsJude et al., Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab439 (Peer Reviewed)

hosp., ↓71.6%, p<0.0001

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher hospitalisation risk from COVID-19: a retrospective case-control studyDetails Retrospective 80,670 people in the UK with vitamin D levels measured within the last 12 months, showing higher risk of hospitalization with low vitamin D levels.

Jun 14

PrEPPEPCampi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06281-7 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓88.4%, p<0.0001

Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in ItalyDetails

Jun 14

LevelsCampi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06281-7 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓24.3%, p=0.53

Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in ItalyDetails Prospective study of 103 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and increased severity for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D supplementation was significantly less common for cases.

Jun 7

LevelsDror et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.06.04.21258358 (Preprint)

severe case, ↓85.1%, p=0.001

Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illnessDetails Retrospective 253 hospitalized patients in Israel showing higher mortality and higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were measured 14 to 730 days before the COVID-19 test. Adjusted results are only provid..

Jun 6

LevelsDiaz-Curiel, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105928 (Peer Reviewed)

ICU, ↓73.2%, p=0.02

The relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and COVID-19 onset and disease course in Spanish patientsDetails Retrospective 1,549 patients in Spain showing that the frequency of vitamin D deficiency was higher in admitted patients compared to the overall Spanish population, and that vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of ICU a..

Jun 4

LevelsKotur et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.689419 (Peer Reviewed)Association of Vitamin D, Zinc and Selenium Related Genetic Variants With COVID-19 Disease SeverityDetails Analysis of variants in genes significant for the status of vitamin D in 120 Serbian COVID-19 patients, showing that vitamin D related genetic variants DHCR7/NADSYN rs12785878 and CYP2R1 rs10741657 were associated with severe COVID-19 in ..

Jun 2

PrEPPEPFasano et al., Movement Disorders, doi:10.1002/mds.28176 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓42.0%, p=0.05

COVID-19 in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Living in Lombardy, ItalyDetails Retrospective phone survey of 1,486 Parkinson's disease patients in Italy, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin D supplementation. This paper also presents a case control study of PD patients and family member control patients.

Jun 1

LevelsButler-Laporte et al., PLOS Medicine, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003605 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity in the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative: A Mendelian randomization studyDetails Mendelian randomization study not finding significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes based on vitamin D level. This study does not compare patients with deficiency/insuffiency/sufficiency, only providing ORs for increase in D levels. Au..

May 31

LevelsPimental et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.05.021 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓29.4%, p=1.00

Low vitamin D levels and increased neutrophil in patients admitted at ICU with COVID-19Details Retrospective 25 ICU patients in Brazil, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. There appears to be a typo in the mortality percentage for vitamin D deficiency (20% is not valid for the group size..

May 29

LevelsSooriyaarachchi et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.05.011 (Peer Reviewed)Impact of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19Details Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and deaths in 47 countries, showing vitamin D deficiency significantly associated with mortality.

May 28

EarlySánchez-Zuno, J. Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10112378 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓89.4%, p=0.04

Vitamin D Levels in COVID-19 Outpatients from Western Mexico: Clinical Correlation and Effect of Its SupplementationDetails Very small 42 PCR+ outpatient RCT in Mexico, 22 treated with vitamin D. Most patients had insufficient vitamin D levels, there were more symptoms in those with insufficient levels, and there were less cases with fever or with >3 symptoms ..

May 26

In SilicoAl-Mazaideh et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, doi:10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29B31603 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D is a New Promising Inhibitor to the Main Protease (Mpro) of COVID-19 by Molecular DockingDetailsIn Silico study showing vitamin D binding with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. Among the compounds tested, vitamin D had the highest potential interaction in terms of total H-bond, van der Waal, torsional, and desolvation energy. Authors recommend ad..

May 25

LevelsPapadimitriou et al., World J. Virology, doi:10.5501/wjv.v10.i3.111] (Peer Reviewed)Association between population vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 related serious-critical illness and deaths: An ecological integrative approachDetails Country analysis showing negative correlations between population vitamin D level and severe cases and death (but not with cases overall). Authors conclude that higher vitamin D levels may protect from severe cases and death, even more so..

May 22

EarlyAsimi et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.73.PEP14.2 (Preprint)

ventilation, ↓97.4%, p<0.0001

Selenium, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation affect the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in Hashimoto’s thyroiditisDetails Retrospective 356 Hashimoto's thyroiditis outpatients, 270 taking vitamin D, zinc, and selenium, showing significantly lower hospitalization with treatment. Authors adjust for age, gender, BMI, and smoking status, reporting statistically ..

May 21

LateAlcala-Diaz et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13061760 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓80.8%, p=0.04

Calcifediol Treatment and Hospital Mortality Due to COVID-19: A Cohort StudyDetails Retrospective 537 patients in Spain, 79 treated with calcifediol, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. The treated group had a higher risk of comorbidity, whereas the control group had lower O2 saturation, higher CURB‐65,..

May 19

LevelsAlSafar et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051714 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓59.3%, p=0.05

COVID-19 Disease Severity and Death in Relation to Vitamin D Status among SARS-CoV-2-Positive UAE ResidentsDetails Retrospective 464 patients in United Arab Emirates showing low D levels at first hospital visit associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality.

May 19

LevelsLi et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11634 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓8.6%, p=0.24

Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity Among Working-Age AdultsDetails Cohort study of 18,148 patients in the USA showing low vitamin D associated with COVID-19 PCR+ status before adjustments but not after. Authors state that "low vitamin D levels were not independently associated with the risk of sero..

May 18

PrEPPEPDudley et al., BJPsych Bulletin, doi:10.1192/bjb.2021.55 (Peer Reviewed)

symp. case, ↓22.4%, p=0.65

Revisiting vitamin D status and supplementation for in-patients with intellectual and developmental disability in the North of England, UKDetails Retrospective 64 patients with intellectual and developmental disability in the UK, showing no sigificant difference in COVID-19 status with vitamin D supplementation. Only 6 patients were not on vitamin D supplementation.

May 8

LevelsSavitri et al., Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25:6 (Peer Reviewed)

symp. case, ↓88.0%, p<0.0001

Comparison between Vitamin D Level of Asymptomatic Confirmed Covid-19 Patients with Symptomatic Confirmed Covid-19 Patients in MakassarDetails Retrospective 42 PCR+ patients in Indonesia, showing significantly higher risk of symptomatic cases with vitamin D deficiency.

May 3

PrEPPEPLevitus et al., Journal of the Endocrine Society, doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvab048.567 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓30.8%, p=0.25

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Severe COVID-19 Outcomes in Patients With Vitamin D InsufficiencyDetails Retrospective 129 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels measured within 90 days prior to admission, showing lower, but not statistically significant, risk of severe cases with vitamin D supplementation among patients with levels <20..

Apr 29

EarlyLoucera et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.27.21255937 (Preprint)

death, ↓71.9%, p<0.0001

Real world evidence of calcifediol use and mortality rate of COVID-19 hospitalized in a large cohort of 16,401 Andalusian patientsDetails Retrospective 16,401 hospitalized patients in Spain showing a significant reduction in mortality associated with the prescription of vitamin D, especially calcifediol, within 15-30 days prior to hospitalization.

Apr 26

LevelsAl-Daghri et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02838-x (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case–control studyDetails Case control study with 220 adults showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in PCR+ patients.

Apr 18

LevelsElham et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.03.040 (Peer Reviewed)Serum vitamin D, calcium, and zinc levels in patients with COVID-19Details Case control study with 93 hospitalized patients in Iran and 186 control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D, zinc, and calcium levels in cases. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.017.

Apr 17

ReviewShah Alam et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107686 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)

review

The role of vitamin D in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection: An updateDetails Review of vitamin D for COVID-19 noting that infections are likely to be more prevalent in the winter season; clinical trials show vitamin D as a potential therapeutic agent; vitamin D is beneficial against COVID-19 by reducing inflammato..

Apr 6

PrEPPEPOristrell et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines9050509 (preprint 4/6/21) (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓43.0%, p=0.001

Association of Calcitriol Supplementation with Reduced COVID-19 Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-based StudyDetails Retrospective study of calcitriol supplementation with chronic kidney disease patients in Catalonia showing lower cases, severe cases, and mortality with supplementation. A dose-response relationship was found for severe cases and mortali..

Apr 5

LevelsÜnsal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01566-9 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓80.6%, p=0.23

Retrospective analysis of vitamin D status on ınflammatory markers and course of the disease in patients with COVID-19 infectionDetails Retrospective 56 patients in Turkey showing greater need for oxygen therapy and higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, and significantly lower risk of pneumonia with vitamin D supplementation.

Apr 2

LevelsLivingston et al., Int. J. Clinical Practive, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14166 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓50.9%, p=0.02

Detectable respiratory SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA is associated with low vitamin D levels and high social deprivationDetails Retrospective 104 consecutive patients tested for COVID-19 in a hospital in the UK, showing lower vitamin D and higher social deprivation associated with COVID-19 positive results.

Mar 31

LevelsBayramoğlu et al., European Journal of Pediatrics, doi:10.1007/s00431-021-04030-1 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓69.5%, p=0.03

The association between vitamin D levels and the clinical severity and inflammation markers in pediatric COVID-19 patients: single-center experience from a pandemic hospitalDetails Retrospective 103 pediatric hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and clinical severity.

Mar 30

PrEPPEPHolt et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.27.21254452 (Preprint)

cases, ↓6.8%, p=0.53

Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)Details Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..

Mar 29

MetaAkbar et al., Front. Nutr. 8:660420, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.660420 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)

meta-analysis

Low Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vitamin D) Level Is Associated With Susceptibility to COVID-19, Severity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisDetails Systematic review and meta analysis showing that low vitamin D levels was associated with COVID-19 cases, severity, and mortality.

Mar 27

LevelsGaudio et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073491 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓79.3%, p<0.0001

Vitamin D Levels Are Reduced at the Time of Hospital Admission in Sicilian SARS-CoV-2-Positive PatientsDetails Retrospective 50 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Italy with vitamin D levels measured on admission, and 100 matched control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D levels were also lower in..

Mar 27

LevelsFreitas et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254032 (Preprint)

death, ↓41.2%, p=0.02

Vitamin D-related polymorphisms and vitamin D levels as risk biomarkers of COVID-19 infection severityDetails Analysis of 491 hospitalized patients in Portugal showing that polymorphisms in the vitamin D binding protein encoded by the GC gene are related to COVID-19 severity (p = 0.005). There was an association between vitamin D polygenic risk s..

Mar 26

MetaPetrelli et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105883 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)

meta-analysis

Therapeutic and prognostic role of vitamin D for COVID-19 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 43 observational studiesDetails Meta analysis showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher risk of COVID-19, worse severity, and higher mortality. Supplementation with vitamin D reduced the risk of severe cases and mortality.

Mar 22

ReviewKohlmeier et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000265 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)

review

When Mendelian randomisation failsDetails Analysis of why Mendelian randomization may fail in vitamin D studies. Authors suggest that it may come down to the use of 25-OHD concentration in serum as a less than ideal proxy for vitamin D status of cells involved in the immune respo..

Mar 19

LevelsMeltzer et al., JAMA Netw Open., doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4117 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓34.6%, p=0.11

Association of Vitamin D Levels, Race/Ethnicity, and Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test ResultsDetails Retrospective 4,638 individuals with vitamin D levels within 1 year before COVID-19 testing, showing higher risk of COVID-19 PCR+ for vitamin D deficient individuals, and lower (but not statistically significant) cases for individuals usi..

Mar 14

LevelsVanegas-Cedillo, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253490 (Preprint)

death, ↓52.6%, p=0.006

Serum Vitamin D levels are associated with increased COVID-19 severity markers and mortality independent of visceral adiposityDetails Retrospective 551 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients in Mexico showing vitamin D ≤12ng/mL independently associated with COVID-19 mortality. No association was found between vitamin D levels and the need for intubation. Vitamin D deficie..

Mar 13

LevelsJayawardena et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.03.006 (Peer Reviewed)Impact of the vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asian countriesDetails Analysis of Asian countries finding that prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and lower vitamin D levels were associated with COVID-19 infection and mortality. Positive correlations were observed for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with..

Mar 12

LevelsAhmad et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.11.21253361 (Preprint)

death, ↓53.6%, p=0.03

Mean Vitamin D levels in 19 European Countries & COVID-19 Mortality over 10 monthsDetails Retrospective 19 European countries showing countries with mean vitamin D levels > 50nmol/L have a 2.2 times lower risk of mortality (p = 0.032) compared to those with mean levels < 50 nmol/L.

Mar 8

LevelsCharoenngam et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.02.013 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓34.1%, p=0.26

Association of vitamin D status with hospital morbidity and mortality in adult hospitalized COVID-19 patientsDetails Retrospective 287 hospitalized patients in the USA showing significantly lower mortality with vitamin D sufficiency in elderly patients and patients without obesity; and lower mortality for all patients but not reaching statistical signif..

Mar 7

LateNotz et al., Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.001 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D deficiency in critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patientsDetails Retrospective 26 ICU patients showing that the majority of patients had vitamin D deficiency. There was no statistically significant association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and clinical course, however low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitami..

Mar 5

LevelsKralj et al., Critical Case Reports, doi:10.1002/ccr3.4010 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D and COVID‐19 in an immunocompromised patient with multiple comorbidities—A Case ReportDetails Case report of a high-risk immunocompromised patient with multiple comorbidities that had a mild case of COVID-19. The patient had UVB phototherapy three months earlier and had normal vitamin D levels (92.2 nmol/L, normal range 50-125).

Mar 5

PrEPPEPMazziotti et al., J Endocrinol. Invest., doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01535-2 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓19.0%, p=0.49

Vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism and respiratory insufficiency in hospitalized patients with COVID-19Details -

Mar 5

LevelsMazziotti et al., J Endocrinol. Invest., doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01535-2 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓2.4%, p=0.91

Vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism and respiratory insufficiency in hospitalized patients with COVID-19Details Retrospective 348 hospitalized patients in Italy showing vitamin D deficiency associated with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Vitamin D supplementation during hospitalization was not significantly associated with mortality or ventila..

Mar 4

LevelsLohia et al., American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2020 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓14.7%, p=0.56

Exploring the link between vitamin D and clinical outcomes in COVID-19Details Retrospective 270 patients with vitamin D levels measured in the last year, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels or vitamin D supplementation.

Mar 3

LevelsRicci et al., Respiratory Research, doi:10.1186/s12931-021-01666-3 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓87.6%, p=0.07

Circulating Vitamin D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in COVID-19 patientsDetails Retrospective 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with compromised inflammatory responses and higher pulmonary involvement. Vitamin D deficient patients also showed higher mortality, although ..

Feb 28

LateKaren et al., International Journal of Progressive Science and Technologies, doi:10.52155/ijpsat.v27.2.3269 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D Associated Peculiarities in Women with Mild Covid-19 and Effect of Calcifediol on the Level of Vitamin D and Possibly, on Disease Outcome - Prospective Pilot StudyDetails Prospective study of 30 female COVID-19 patients, all treated with calcifediol on admission, showing significantly increased vitamin D levels with treatment. There was no mortality.

Feb 24

PrEPPEPSulli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13030717 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓75.6%, p=0.0002

Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 PatientsDetails Retrospective 65 elderly COVID-19 patients and 65 matched controls, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration, and higher mortality. Vitamin D supplementation was less common in t..

Feb 23

LateLakkireddy et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-90189-4 (preprint 2/23/21) (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓60.9%, p=0.27

Impact of daily high dose oral vitamin D therapy on the inflammatory markers in patients with COVID 19 diseaseDetails RCT 44 treatment and 43 control patients with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml, showing significant reduction in inflammatory markers with treatment of 60,000IU vitamin D per day for 8 days (10 days for BMI >25). Death and ICU admission was lowe..

Feb 19

LevelsGavioli et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1869626 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↑4.7%, p=0.83

An Evaluation of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Patients with COVID-19 in New York CityDetails Retrospective 437 mostly serious condition (85% hospitalized) patients in New York, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with increased likelihood of oxygen support, but no association with mortality and hospitalization. Multivariate a..

Feb 18

LevelsInfante et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓54.8%, p=0.05

Low Vitamin D Status at Admission as a Risk Factor for Poor Survival in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Italian Retrospective StudyDetails Retrospective 137 hospitalized patients in Italy. All patients had low vitamin D levels, and lower levels were associated with higher mortality. In multivariate logistic regression, vitamin D levels were significantly inversely associate..

Feb 17

EarlyBurahee et al., SICOT-J, doi:10.1051/sicotj/2021001 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓93.3%, p=0.01

Older patients with proximal femur fractures and SARS-CoV-2 infection – An observational studyDetails Small retrospective study of 29 hip fracture patients in the UK, 14 with COVID-19. All COVID-19 patients were treated with vitamin D except for 2 where testing and supplementation was missed due to a clerical error. The two COVID-19 patie..

Feb 12

LevelsBasaran et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/bll_2021_034 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓68.6%, p=0.005

The relationship between vitamin D and the severity of COVID-19Details Prospective study of 204 patients with COVID-19-like pneumonia in Turkey, 42 outpatients (mild cases), and 162 inpatients (serious cases), showing significantly higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency.

Feb 12

LevelsSusianti et al., Journal of Medical Biochemistry, doi:10.5937/jomb0-30228 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓91.5%, p=0.32

Low levels of vitamin D were associated with coagulopathy among hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients: A single-centered study in IndonesiaDetails Retrospective 50 hospitalized PCR+ patients in Indonesia showing ICU admission, mortality, ISTH DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) score>=5, and increased D-dimer significantly associated with lower vitamin D levels.

Feb 9

PrEPPEPHancock et al., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3779211 (Preprint)Case Cluster of RT-PCR COVID-19 Positive Patients with an Unexpected Benign Clinical Course With Vitamin D, Melatonin, Vitamin C, and Viscum AlbumDetails Case series of 24 COVID-19 patients (12 confirmed PCR+) treated with vitamin D, vitamin C, and melatonin, showing positive outcomes with no patient having worse than a mild case, including 7 high risk patients.

Feb 3

LevelsYadav et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, doi:10.1007/s12291-020-00950-1 (Peer Reviewed)Association of Vitamin D Status with COVID-19 Infection and Mortality in the Asia Pacific region: A Cross-Sectional StudyDetails Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in 37 Asia Pacific countries, finding a significant association with the number of cases/million (r =  −0.394, p = 0.016) and a weak association with the number of deaths/ million (r =  −0.280, p ..

Feb 2

LevelsSöbü et al., The Journal of Current Pediatrics, doi:10.4274/jcp.2021.0002 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D Levels of COVID-19 Positive Sypmtomatic Pediatric CasesDetails Retrospective 30 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 82 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.

Feb 1

LevelsPatchen et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000255 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓2.0%, p=0.11

Genetically predicted serum vitamin D and COVID-19: a Mendelian randomization studyDetails UK Biobank Mendelian randomization study not finding significant differences in COVID-19 risk. The number of people predicted to have vitamin D deficiency does not appear to be provided. For some background on Mendelian randomization stu..

Jan 31

LevelsNadiger et al., Critical Care Medicine, doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000726440.30551.47 (Peer Reviewed)Vitamin D Levels in Children With COVID-19 Admitted to the PICUDetails Retrospective 14 pediatric COVID-19 ICU patients showing that the majority were vitamin D deficient.

Jan 29

LevelsDemir et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26832 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓89.3%, p<0.001

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID‐19 positivity and the severity of the diseaseDetails Retrospective cohort study of 487 patients finding that lower vitamin D levels is associated with more severe cases as measured by affected lung segments and increased hospitalization time for COVID-19 positive patients, and that lower vi..

Jan 29

PrEPPEPMa et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa381 (Peer Reviewed)

cases, ↓30.0%, p=0.03

Habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a prospective study in UK BiobankDetails Retrospective 8,297 adults from the UK Biobank showing the habitual use of vitamin D supplements significantly associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases. Note that the information on vitamin D supplement use was collected a median of 1..

Jan 29

LevelsRafailia et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.28.21250673 (Preprint)Is vitamin D deficiency associated with the COVID-19 epidemic in EuropeDetails Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and mortality in European countries showing significant correlations with infections (r=0.82, p<0.001) and mortality (r=0.53, p=0.05).

Jan 28

ReviewBrenner, H., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020411 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)

review

Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 Infections and Deaths—Accumulating Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies Calls for Immediate ActionDetails Summary of epidemiological and intervention studies for vitamin D supplementation. Author concludes that despite limitations, evidence strongly supports widespread supplementation, in particular for high-risk populations, as well as high-..

Jan 25

LevelsTehrani et al., Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.014 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓47.5%, p=0.07

Evaluation of vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients referred to Labafinejad hospital in Tehran and its relationship with disease severity and mortalityDetails Retrospective 205 patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, not quite reaching statistical significance.

Jan 25

LevelsBarassi et al., Panminerva Med., doi:10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04277-4 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓64.9%, p=0.44

Vitamin D in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients with non-invasive ventilation supportDetails Retrospective 118 consecutive hospitalized PCR+ patients in Italy showing higher ventilation and mortality with vitamin D deficiency.

Jan 22

LateNogués et al., The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab405 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓79.0%, p=0.001

Calcifediol Treatment and COVID-19-Related OutcomesDetails Quasi-randomized trial with 930 hospitalized patients, 447 treated with calcifediol, showing significantly lower ICU admission and death with treatment. Note that the randomization in this trial is by ward. Authors report that patients we..

Jan 21

LevelsWalrand, S., Nature, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-81419-w (Peer Reviewed)Autumn COVID-19 surge dates in Europe correlated to latitudes, not to temperature-humidity, pointing to vitamin D as contributing factorDetails Analysis of the increase in COVID-19 cases in European countries, showing no correlation with temperature, but a significant correlation with country latitude. Since UV radiation decreases earlier for higher latitudes, this supports the t..

Jan 19

LevelsOrchard et al., Clin Chem Lab Med, doi:10.1515/cclm-2020-1567 (Peer Reviewed)

ICU, ↓58.8%, p=0.001

Vitamin-D levels and intensive care unit outcomes of a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patientsDetails Retrospective 165 hospitalized patients with known vitamin D levels, showing an associated between vitamin D deficiency and ICU admission. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes for ICU patients. It's uncle..

Jan 18

PrEPPEPVasheghani et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-97017-9 (preprint 1/18/2021) (Preprint)

death, ↓30.4%, p=0.45

The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the severity of COVID-19 disease and its mortalityDetails Retrospective 508 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran showing lower mortality with vitamin D supplementation (not reaching statistical significance), and an association between lower vitamin D levels and disease severity, ICU admission..

Jan 16

LevelsHutchings et al., Endocrine, doi:/10.1007/s12020-020-02597-7 (Peer Reviewed)Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin DDetails Retrospective 330 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Armenia, showing significantly higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<12ng/mL) compared to health controls (45% vs. 13%).

Jan 14

LateGiannini et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13010219 (Peer Reviewed)

death/ICU, ↓36.6%, p=0.13

Effectiveness of In-Hospital Cholecalciferol Use on Clinical Outcomes in Comorbid COVID-19 Patients: A Hypothesis-Generating StudyDetails Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients, 36 treated with high-dose cholecalciferol, showing lower combined death/ICU admission with treatment. Authors also analyze the relationship with comorbidity burden, finding that the positive effect..

Jan 12

LevelsBennouar et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1856013 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓85.5%, p=0.002

Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Serum Calcium as Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Severe COVID-19Details Prospective study of 120 severe cases of COVID-19 in Algeria finding low vitamin D and low calcium both associated with increased mortality.

Jan 11

LevelsLi et al., Aging and Disease, doi:10.14336/AD.2020.1108 (Peer Reviewed)

severe case, ↓36.2%, p<0.0001

Metabolic Healthy Obesity, Vitamin D Status, and Risk of COVID-19Details UK Biobank retrospective 353,299 patients showing that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are associated with increased COVID-19 risk. This study also analyzes metabolic/obesity phenotypes and the combination with vitamin D status.

Jan 9

LevelsAngelidi et al., Mayo Clinic Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.001 (Peer Reviewed)

death, ↓88.0%, p=0.01

Vitamin D Status is Associated With In-hospital Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation: A Cohort of COVID-19 Hospitalized PatientsDetails Retrospective 144 patients in the USA showing significantly lower mortality for vitamin D levels >=30ng/mL.

Jan 7

LevelsPal et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.590805 (Peer Reviewed)High Prevalence of Hypocalcemia in Non-severe COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Case-Control StudyDetails Retrospective 72 non-severe COVID-19 patients in India, showing very high levels of vitamin D deficiency (70 of 72 patients).

Jan 7

LevelsAmin et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000151 (Peer Reviewed)

progression, ↑32.3%, p=0.20